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A Systematic Review of Long-Interval Intracortical Inhibition as a Biomarker in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Fatih P, Kucuker MU, Vande Voort JL, Doruk Camsari D, Farzan F, Croarkin PE

Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm mediated in part by gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABAB) inhibition. Prior work has examined LICI as a putative biomarker in an array of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) sought to examine existing literature focused on LICI as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders. There were 113 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Existing literature suggests that LICI may have utility as a biomarker of GABAB functioning but more research with increased methodologic rigor is needed. The extant LICI literature has heterogenous methodology and inconsistencies in findings. Existing findings to date are also non-specific to disease. Future research should carefully consider existing methodological weaknesses and implement high-quality test-retest reliability studies.

Keywords: cortical inhibition; electroencephalography; electromyography; long-interval intracortical inhibition; transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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